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Hypnosis Studies and Statistics...

This page contains over 175 studies and statistics about the use of hypnosis in the treatment of the common medical conditions listed below.

 

ADHD

Anxiety

Autism

Burn Patients

Cancer

Cardiac Disease

Dentistry

Depression

Dermatology

Diabetes

Esophageal Disorders

Fears

 

Fibromyalgia

General

Headaches

Hemodialysis

HIV

IBS

Insomnia

Learning

Noninvasive Positive Pressure    Ventilation

Osteoarthritis

Pediatrics

 

Phantom Limb Pain

PTSD

Sickle Cell Disease

Spinal Cord Injury

Sports Performance

Stroke Patients

Substance Abuse

Surgical Procedures

Tinnitus

Vocal Cord Injury

Weight Loss

Women’s Health

ADHD

ADHD: Better long-term outcome for hypnotherapy. Independent evaluators’ ratings qualitatively supported the results. Hypnotherapy seems to be a usable method for treating ADHD in adults.

Better long term outcome for Hypnotherapy than for CBT in adults with ADHD: Results of a six-month follow up. Seppo Hiltunen, Maarit Virta, Anita Salakari, Mervi Antilla Esa Chydeniu, Markus Kaski, Risto Vataja, Matti Iivanainen, Markku Partinen Contemporary Hypnosis and Integrative Therapy 30(3): 118–134 (2014)

ADHD: This study indicates that hypnotic suggestions have an effect on reaction times in the sustained attention task both in adult ADHD patients and control subjects.

Virta, M., Hiltunen, S., Mattsson, M., & Kallio, S. (2015). The Impact of Hypnotic Suggestions on Reaction Times in Continuous Performance Test in Adults with ADHD and Healthy Controls. Plos One, 10(5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126497

Anxiety

Hypnosis significantly alleviates preoperative anxiety.

Saadat, H., Drummond-Lewis, J., Maranets, I., Kaplan, D., Saadat, A., Wang, S., & Kain, Z. N. (2006). Hypnosis Reduces Preoperative Anxiety in Adult Patients. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 102(5), 1394-1396. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000204355.36015.54

Self-hypnosis training represents a rapid, cost-effective, nonaddictive and safe alternative to medication for the treatment of anxiety-related conditions. The tremendous volume of research provides compelling evidence that hypnosis is an efficacious treatment for state anxiety (e.g., prior to tests, surgery and medical procedures) and anxiety-related disorders, such as headaches and irritable bowel syndrome.

Hammond, D. C. (2010). Hypnosis in the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 10(2), 263-273. doi:10.1586/ern.09.140

Studies report positive results, including statistically significant reductions in pain and anxiety/distress

Richardson, J., Smith, J. E., Mccall, G., & Pilkington, K. (2006). Hypnosis for Procedure- Related Pain and Distress in Pediatric Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness and Methodology Related to Hypnosis Interventions. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 31(1), 70-84. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2005.06.010

CBT-hypnosis resulted in greater reduction in reexperiencing symptoms at posttreatment than CBT. These findings suggest that hypnosis may have use in facilitating the treatment effects of CBT for posttraumatic stress.

Bryant, R. A., Moulds, M. L., Guthrie, R. M., & Nixon, R. D. (2005). The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(2), 334-340. doi:10.1037/0022- 006x.73.2.334

A group mindfulness meditation training program can effectively reduce symptoms of anxiety and panic and can help maintain these reductions in patients with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or panic disorder with agoraphobia.

Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. (1992). American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(7), 936-943. doi:10.1176/ajp.149.7.936

This study investigated the effect of hypnosis on anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleepiness in hemodialysis patients. Twenty-nine patients participated in the 15-day study. A single hypnosis session was performed on Day 8. Anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleepiness were measured at baseline, on Day 8, and on Day 15 (HADS, MFI, ESS). Daily fatigue was also measured numerically. Anxiety, depression, and sleepiness significantly decreased after hypnosis.

Untas, A., Chauveau, P., Dupré-Goudable, C., Kolko, A., Lakdja, F., & Cazenave, N. (2013). The Effects of Hypnosis on Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, and Sleepiness in People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Clinical Report. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 61(4), 475-483. doi:10.1080/00207144.2013.810485

Cancer related anxiety: The authors conclude that brief hypnosis concurrently administered reduces patient anxiety during bone marrow aspirates and biopsies but may not adequately control pain. The authors explain this latter finding as indicating that the sensory component of a patient's pain experience may be of lesser importance than the affective component

A Randomized Trial of Hypnosis for Relief of Pain and Anxiety in Adult Cancer Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Procedures Alison Snow LCSW-R, David Dorfman PhD, Rachel Warbet LCSW, Meredith Cammarata LCSW, Stephanie Eisenman LCSW, Felice Zilberfein PhD, Luis Isola MD, and Shyamala Navada MD Journal Of Psychosocial Oncology Vol. 30 , Iss. 3,2012

Autogenic training and students: here was a statistically significantly greater reduction of State (P < 0·001) and Trait (P < 0·001) Anxiety in the autogenic training group than in both other groups immediately after treatment.

Kanji, N., White, A., & Ernst, E. (2006). Autogenic training to reduce anxiety in nursing students: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(6), 729-735. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03779.x

Hypnosis Reduces Pain of Headaches and Anxiety

Melis PM, Rooimans W, Spierings EL, Hoogduin CA, Treatment of chronic tension- type headache with hypnotherapy: a single-blind time controlled study. Headache 1999; 31(10): 686-9.

Autism

Autism: It suggests that self-regulation therapy using hypnosis and biofeedback should be highly effective, especially for young people. Hypnotic strategies can utilize restrictive repetitive behaviors in trance as resources for comfort and control. Biofeedback training can be tailored to focus on autonomic regulation. The authors develop this theory and describe methods of integrating hypnosis and biofeedback that have been therapeutic for people with autism.

Symptoms as Solutions: Hypnosis and Biofeedback for Autonomic Regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Laurence I. Sugarman, Brian L. Garrison, and Kelsey L. Williford. American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 56 , Iss. 2,2013

Burn Patients

Results: The authors found that the group receiving hypnosis had a significant drop in pain compared with the control group when measured by the McGill Pain Questionnaire but not when measured by other pain rating scales. Conclusion: The McGill Pain Questionnaire total score reflects multiple pain components, such as its affective component and various qualitative components, and is not merely a measure of pain intensity. Thus, the findings suggest that hypnosis affects multiple pain domains and that measures that assess these multiple domains may be more sensitive to the effects of hypnotic analgesia treatments.

Askay, S. W., Patterson, D. R., Jensen, M. P., & Sharar, S. R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of hypnosis for burn wound care. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52(3), 247-253. doi:10.1037/0090-5550.52.3.247

Cancer

Breast Cancer: The results support CBTH (cognitive-behavioral therapy plus hypnosis) as an evidence-based intervention to control fatigue in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. CBTH is noninvasive, has no adverse effects, and its beneficial effects persist long after the last intervention session.

Jooris, D., & Cohen, L. (2015). Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Plus Hypnosis Intervention to Control Fatigue in Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer. Breast Diseases: A Year Book Quarterly, 26(1), 30-31. doi:10.1016/j.breastdis.2015.01.008

Hypnosis appears to reduce perceived hot flashes in breast cancer survivors and may have additional benefits such as reduced anxiety and depression, and improved sleep.

Lawton, C. (2009). Randomized Trial of a Hypnosis Intervention for Treatment of Hot Flashes Among Breast Cancer Survivors. Yearbook of Oncology, 2009, 17-18. doi:10.1016/s1040-1741(08)79273-x

Studies report positive results, including statistically significant reductions in pain and anxiety/distress

Richardson, J., Smith, J. E., Mccall, G., & Pilkington, K. (2006). Hypnosis for Procedure- Related Pain and Distress in Pediatric Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness and Methodology Related to Hypnosis Interventions. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 31(1), 70-84. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2005.06.010

Chemotherapy patients had less anticipatory and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. And feeling better, is the first step in recovery!

Richardson, J., Smith, J., Mccall, G., Richardson, A., Pilkington, K., & Kirsch, I. (2007). Hypnosis for nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy: A systematic review of the research evidence. European Journal of Cancer Care, 16(5), 402-412. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2354.2006.00736.x

Immune System Response: Only hypnotized patients had significant alteration of immune response.

Ruzyla-Smith, P., Barabasz, A., Barabasz, M., & Warner, D. (1995). Effects of Hypnosis on the Immune Response: B-Cells, T-Cells, Helper and Suppressor Cells. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 38(2), 71-79. doi:10.1080/00029157.1995.10403185

Results demonstrated that at the end of intervention patients in the hypnosis group had significantly better overall quality of life and lower levels of anxiety and depression when compared to the standard care group. It is concluded that hypnosis is effective in the enhancement of quality of life in terminally ill cancer patients.

Efficacy of clinical hypnosis in the enhancement of quality of life of terminally ill cancer patients. Liossi and White (Contemporary Hypnosis 18(3): 145–160). (2001). Contemporary Hypnosis, 18(4), 220-220. doi:10.1002/ch.233

Breast cancer, improves wound healing: During surgery, hypnosis may be applied to limit immunosuppression, while, in the postoperative period, it can reduce pain, anxiety, and fatigue and improve wound healing.

Potié, A., Roelants, F., Pospiech, A., Momeni, M., & Watremez, C. (2016). Hypnosis in the Perioperative Management of Breast Cancer Surgery: Clinical Benefits and Potential Implications. Anesthesiology Research and Practice, 2016, 1-8. doi:10.1155/2016/2942416

Fatigue in cancer patients: Results: Multilevel modeling indicated that for weekly FACIT fatigue data, there was a significant effect of the CBTH intervention on the rate of change in fatigue (p < .05), such that on average, CBTH participants’ fatigue did not increase over the course of treatment, whereas control group participants’ fatigue increased linearly.

Fatigue during breast cancer radiotherapy: An initial randomized study of cognitive– behavioral therapy plus hypnosis. Montgomery, Guy H.; Kangas, Maria; David, Daniel; Hallquist, Michael N.; Green, Sheryl; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Schnur, Julie B. Health Psychology, Vol 28(3), May 2009, 317-322.

Breast cancer: Hypnosis was superior to attention control regarding propofol and lidocaine use; pain, nausea, fatigue, discomfort, and emotional upset at discharge; and institutional cost. Overall, the present data support the use of hypnosis with breast cancer surgery patients.

A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients Guy H. Montgomery, Dana H. Bovbjerg, Julie B. Schnur, Daniel David, Alisan Goldfarb, Christina R. Weltz, Clyde Schechter, Joshua Graff-Zivin, Kristin Tatrow, Donald D. Price and Jeffrey H. Silverstein JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst (2007) 99(17): 1304-1312.doi: 10.1093/jnci/djm106

Cancer related anxiety: The authors conclude that brief hypnosis concurrently administered reduces patient anxiety during bone marrow aspirates and biopsies but may not adequately control pain. The authors explain this latter finding as indicating that the sensory component of a patient's pain experience may be of lesser importance than the affective component

A Randomized Trial of Hypnosis for Relief of Pain and Anxiety in Adult Cancer Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Procedures Alison Snow LCSW-R, David Dorfman PhD, Rachel Warbet LCSW, Meredith Cammarata LCSW, Stephanie Eisenman LCSW, Felice Zilberfein PhD, Luis Isola MD, and Shyamala Navada MD Journal Of Psychosocial Oncology Vol. 30 , Iss. 3,2012

Cardiac Disease

Heart failure patients reported “Symptom-related quality of life was improved” when relaxation, meditation and guided imagery strategies were used to manage symptoms.

Kwekkeboom, K. L., & Bratzke, L. C. (2016). A Systematic Review of Relaxation, Meditation, and Guided Imagery Strategies for Symptom Management in Heart Failure. The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 31(5), 457-468. doi:10.1097/jcn.0000000000000274

Heart Patients: It appears that hypnosis can produce cardiac and cognitive activations. Hypnotherapy may be useful in some cardiac clinical conditions characterized by an autonomic imbalance or some cardiac arrhythmias.

Yüksel, R., Ozcan, O., & Dane, S. (2013). The Effects of Hypnosis on Heart Rate Variability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 61(2), 162- 171. doi:10.1080/00207144.2013.753826

Dentistry

Dental pain: Self-hypnosis can be used in clinical practice as an adjunct to the gold standard of local anesthesia for pain management, as well as an alternative in individual cases.

Wolf, T. G., Wolf, D., Below, D., D’Hoedt, B., Willershausen, B., & Daubländer, M. (2016). Effectiveness of Self-Hypnosis on the Relief of Experimental Dental Pain: A Randomized Trial. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 64(2), 187-199. doi:10.1080/00207144.2016.113158

Dental hypnosis: Of the subjects who underwent hypnosis, only two subjects (8.3%) reported pain after induction of hypnosis. In the local anaesthetic group, 8 subjects (33.3%) reported pain. There was a significant difference between the two groups. The results of the study showed that patients in the hypnosis group had less pain during the first few hours post-operatively. Anxiety scores in the two groups were very close to each other and no statistically significant differences were observed in general and when each person was compared with himself or herself. Pain intensity in the two groups at 5- and 12-h post-operatively exhibited significant differences. In the hypnosis group, 10 patients (41.7%) took analgesic medication; in the local anaesthesia group, 22 patients (91.7%) took the analgesic medication (P = 0.0001). In other words, patients reported less pain when they were under hypnosis.

Abdeshahi, S. K., Hashemipour, M. A., Mesgarzadeh, V., Payam, A. S., & Monfared, A. H. (2013). Effect of hypnosis on induction of local anaesthesia, pain perception, control of haemorrhage and anxiety during extraction of third molars: A case– control study. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 41(4), 310-315. doi:10.1016/j.jcms.2012.10.009

Depression

Mindfulness and depression: The results suggest that mindfulness meditation practice primarily leads to decreases in ruminative thinking, even after controlling for reductions in affective symptoms and dysfunctional beliefs.

Ramel1, W., Goldin, P. R., Carmona, P. E., & Mcquaid, J. R. (2004). The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Cognitive Processes and Affect in Patients with Past Depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(4), 433-455. doi:10.1023/b:cotr.0000045557.15923.96

Dermatology

A wide spectrum of dermatologic disorders may be improved or cured using hypnosis as an alternative or complementary therapy, including acne excoriée, alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, dyshidrotic dermatitis, erythromelalgia, furuncles, glossodynia, herpes simplex, hyperhidrosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, lichen planus, neurodermatitis, nummular dermatitis, postherpetic neuralgia, pruritus, psoriasis, rosacea, trichotillomania, urticaria, verruca vulgaris, and vitiligo.

Shenefelt, P. D. (2000). Hypnosis in Dermatology. Archives of Dermatology, 136(3). doi:10.1001/archderm.136.3.393

Subjects with warts on their hands and/or feet were randomly assigned to a hypnotic suggestion, topical salicylic acid, placebo, or no treatment control condition. Subjects in the three treated groups developed equivalent expectations of treatment success. Nevertheless, at the six-week follow-up interval only the hypnotic subjects had lost significantly more warts than the no treatment controls

Spanos, N. P., Williams, V., & Gwynn, M. I. (1990). Effects of hypnotic, placebo, and salicylic acid treatments on wart regression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52(1), 109-114. doi:10.1097/00006842-199001000-00009

By using hypnoanalysis on those who failed to respond to DSIH, 33 of 41 (80%) consecutive patients were cured, two were lost to follow-up, and six did not respond to treatment. Self-hypnosis was not used.

Ewin, D. M. (1992). Hypnotherapy for Warts (Verruca Vulgaris): 41 Consecutive Cases with 33 Cures. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 35(1), 1-10. doi:10.1080/00029157.1992.10402977

This time-series study reports results of a 6-session self-hypnosis treatment (relaxation, deepening, imagery, and home practice) for 3 HIV-positive men suffering from pruritus, related to disease progression and/or HIV medications. Posttreatment, all 3 patients reported significant reductions in daily itch severity and extent of sleep disturbance due to itch. One patient also evidenced significantly less itch distress. Another also experienced significantly less time bothered by itch. For the 2 patients on which 4- month follow-up data were available, treatment benefit across variables was stable or further improved.

Rucklidge, J. J., & Saunders, D. (2002). The efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of pruritus in people with hiv/aids: A time-series analysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 50(2), 149-169. doi:10.1080/00207140208410096

Diabetes

Management of diabetes, including regulation of blood sugar, increased compliance, and improvement of peripheral blood circulation.

Hypnosis as an Adjunct Therapy in the Management of Diabetes Yuan Xu and Etzel Cardeña International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis Vol. 56 , Iss. 1,2007

Esophageal Disorders

Hypnotherapy help Esophageal Disorders. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn.

Riehl, M. E., & Keefer, L. (2015). Hypnotherapy for Esophageal Disorders. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 58(1), 22-33. doi:10.1080/00029157.2015.102\

Stop habit coughing: Habit cough is triggered by various physiologic conditions, related frequently to other diagnoses, and it is associated with significant school absence. Self- hypnosis offers a safe efficient treatment.

Anbar, R. D., & Hall, H. R. (2004). Childhood habit cough treated with self-hypnosis. The Journal of Pediatrics, 144(2), 213-217. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2003.10.041

Fears

Fear of Flying: The patient’s self-assessed readiness to fly increased significantly over the course of treatment, and she successfully engaged in a “practice flight” toward the end of her treatment.

Volpe, E. G., & Nash, M. R. (2012). The Use of Hypnosis for Airplane Phobia With an Obsessive Character: A Case Study. Clinical Case Studies, 11(2), 89-103. doi:10.1177/1534650112440167

Fear of heights: The author, an experienced alpine mountaineer, sustained several traumatic climbing injuries over a two-year period. This article describes her multiple uses of self-hypnosis to deal with several challenges related to her returning to successful mountain climbing. She used self-hypnosis for physical healing and to enhance her motivation to resume climbing. While training for her next expedition, she successfully utilized self-hypnotic techniques to deal with acute stress and later post- traumatic symptoms that had emerged related to her climbing injuries. She describes her use of hypnotic ego-strengthening, mental rehearsal, age progression, and “Inner Strength” as well as active-alert trance states. Her successful summiting of Ecuador's Cotopaxi at 19,380 feet was facilitated by “The Hypnotic Belay” which permitted her to secure herself by self-hypnosis in addition to the rope used to secure climbers. In 1994, the author returned to the Cascade Mountains where she had been injured three years earlier and reached the summit of Mount Shuksan. This time she was secured by “The Hypnotic Belay”.

The Hypnotic Belay in Alpine Mountaineering: The Use of Self-Hypnosis for the Resolution of Sports Injuries and for Performance Enhancement Priscilla A. Morton ACSW, BCD American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 46 , Iss. 1,2003

Fibromyalgia

Conclusion: Pleasant imagery (PI) was an effective intervention in reducing fibromyalgic pain during the 28-day study period. Amitriptyline had no significant advantage over placebo during the study period.

Fors, E. A., Sexton, H & Götestam, K. (2002). The effect of guided imagery and amitriptyline on daily., fibromyalgia pain: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 36(3), 179-187. doi:10.1016/s0022-3956(02)00003-1

Fibromyalgia: The analyses indicated that: 1) patients with FM who received multicomponent CBT alone or multicomponent CBT with hypnosis showed greater improvements than patients who received only standard care; and 2) adding hypnosis enhanced the effectiveness of multicomponent CBT. This study presents new evidence about the efficacy of multicomponent CBT for FM and about the additional effects of hypnosis as a complement to CBT.

Castel, A., Cascón, R., Padrol, A., Sala, J., & Rull, M. (2012). Multicomponent Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy With Hypnosis for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: Long-Term Outcome. The Journal of Pain, 13(3), 255-265. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2011.11.005

General

The main disorders that have been treated by hypnotic techniques are migraines, asthma and gastrointestinal disorders. The results have shown a significant decrease of pain level and symptom relief for these patients.

Holdevici, I., & Crăciun, B. (2012). The use of Ericksonian hypnosis in somatic disorders. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 75-79. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.01.086

Studies report positive results, including statistically significant reductions in pain and anxiety/distress

Richardson, J., Smith, J. E., Mccall, G., & Pilkington, K. (2006). Hypnosis for Procedure- Related Pain and Distress in Pediatric Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness and Methodology Related to Hypnosis Interventions. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 31(1), 70-84. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2005.06.010

Presently, there is moderate support for the integration of hypnotic techniques in the treatment of a number of medical problems. This critical review of the research literature focuses on the empirical research on the effectiveness of hypnotic treatments as adjuncts to medical care for anxiety related to medical and dental procedures, asthma, dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, hemorrhagic disorders, nausea and emesis in oncology, and obstetrics/gynecology

Pinnell, C. M., & Covino, N. A. (2000). Empirical findings on the use of hypnosis in medicine: A critical review. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48(2), 170-194. doi:10.1080/00207140008410047

As an anesthesia: Our case confirms the efficacy of hypnosis and demonstrates that it may be valuable as a sole anaesthetic method in selected cases. Hypnosis can prevent pain perception and surgical stress as a whole, comparing well with anaesthetic drugs.

Facco, E., Pasquali, S., Zanette, G., & Casiglia, E. (2013). Hypnosis as sole anesthesia for skin tumour removal in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivity. Anaesthesia, 68(9), 961-965. doi:10.1111/anae.12251

Medical outcomes: Random effects meta-analyses revealed positive treatment effects on emotional distress (g = 0.53, CI 95% [0.37; 0.69]), pain (g = 0.44, CI 95% [0.26; 0.61]), medication consumption (g = 0.38, CI 95% [0.20; 0.56]), physiological parameters (g = 0.10, CI 95% [0.02; 0.18]), recovery (g = 0.25, CI 95% [0.04; 0.46]), and surgical procedure time (g = 0.25, CI 95% [0.12; 0.38]). In conclusion, benefits of hypnosis on various surgically relevant outcomes were demonstrated.

Tefikow, S., Barth, J., Maichrowitz, S., Beelmann, A., Strauss, B., & Rosendahl, J. (2013). Efficacy of hypnosis in adults undergoing surgery or medical procedures: A meta- analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(5), 623-636. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.03.005

Results: The authors found that the group receiving hypnosis had a significant drop in pain compared with the control group when measured by the McGill Pain Questionnaire but not when measured by other pain rating scales. Conclusion: The McGill Pain Questionnaire total score reflects multiple pain components, such as its affective component and various qualitative components, and is not merely a measure of pain intensity. Thus, the findings suggest that hypnosis affects multiple pain domains and that measures that assess these multiple domains may be more sensitive to the effects of hypnotic analgesia treatments.

Askay, S. W., Patterson, D. R., Jensen, M. P., & Sharar, S. R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of hypnosis for burn wound care. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52(3), 247-253. doi:10.1037/0090-5550.52.3.247

Decrease need for blood transfusion: Our study showed that using positive suggestions in the perioperative period significantly decreases the necessity for transfusion.

Effects of Positive Suggestions on the Need for Red Blood Cell Transfusion in Orthopedic Surgery Csenge Szeverényi, Zoltán Csernátony, Ágnes Balogh, Tünde Simon, and Katalin Varga International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis Vol. 64 , Iss. 4,2016

Emergency medicine: Although it is safe, fast, and cost-effective, emergency clinicians rarely use hypnosis. This is due, in part, to the myths surrounding hypnosis and its association with alternative-complementary medicine. Genuine barriers to its increased clinical use include a lack of assured effectiveness and a lack of training and training requirements. Based on the results of further research, hypnosis could become a powerful and safe nonpharmacologic addition to the emergency clinician's armamentarium, with the potential to enhance patient care in emergency medicine, prehospital care, and remote medical settings.

Iserson, K. V. (2014). An Hypnotic Suggestion: Review of Hypnosis for Clinical Emergency Care. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 46(4), 588-596. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2013.09.024

Increase happiness: Hypnosis is presented as an efficient companion intervention to work on these variables in a creative way and to pave the way to a happy and full life. The following results are presented: (1) hypnosis allows for increased executive attention with control of emotions, (2) focusing on positive imagery contributes to strengthening “happy pathways,” and (3) emotions about the past, present, and future are subject to change.

The Use of Hypnosis in Therapy to Increase Happiness. Nicole Ruysschaert American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 56 , Iss. 3,2014

Level of hypnotic suggestibility not so important: Although the four patients differed obviously and vastly in hypnotizability, they all benefited from the use of hypnosis.

Hypnosis, Hypnotizability and Treatment. Howard Sutcher DDS, MA American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 51 , Iss. 1,2008

Forensic hypnosis: These cases illustrate how forensic hypnosis can result in obtaining important additional investigative leads which lead to the solving of crimes.

Solving Crimes with Hypnosis. William C. Wester II Ed.D., ABPH, ABPP and D. Corydon Hammond Ph.D., ABPH Am

Painful procedures, treatments, or diseases remain a major nursing challenge, and nurses need complementary ways to relieve pain from surgery, tumors, injuries, and chemotherapy. This article examines the evidence based related to hypnosis for pain management, as well as how to assess and educate patients about hypnosis.

Hypnosis for Pain Management. Sharon M. Valente, RN, CS, PhD, FAAN. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. February 2006 - Volume 44 · Issue 2: 22-30

Headaches

Headaches reduced in frequency and intensity through self-hypnosis: Data were available for 144 patients in this patient self-selected and uncontrolled observation. Compared with self-reports before learning self-hypnosis, children and youths who learned self-hypnosis for recurrent headaches reported reduction in frequency of headache from an average of 4.5 per week to 1.4 per week (P < .01), reduction in intensity (on a self-rating scale of 0 to 12) from an average of 10.3 to 4.7, P < .01, and reduction in average duration from 23.6 hours to 3.0 hours, (P < .01). There were no adverse side effects of self-hypnosis.

Kohen, D. P., & Zajac, R. (2007). Self-Hypnosis Training for Headaches in Children and Adolescents. The Journal of Pediatrics, 150(6), 635-639. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.02.014

Hypnosis more effective in treating headache pain: The objective of the current study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of hypnosis for managing chronic pain. When compared with standard care, hypnosis provided moderate treatment benefit. Hypnosis also showed a moderate superior effect as compared to other psychological interventions for a non-headache group. The results suggest that hypnosis is efficacious for managing chronic pain.

A Meta-Analysis of Hypnosis for Chronic Pain Problems: A Comparison Between Hypnosis, Standard Care, and Other Psychological Interventions Tomonori Adachi, Haruo Fujino, Aya Nakae, Takashi Mashimo, and Jun Sasaki1 International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis Vol. 62 , Iss. 1,2014

Hypnosis Reduces Frequency and Intensity of Migraines: Compared the treatment of migraine by hypnosis and autohypnosis with the treatment of migraine by the drug prochlorperazine (Stemetil). Results show that the number of attacks and the number of people who suffered blinding attacks were significantly lower for the group receiving hypnotherapy than for the group receiving prochlorperazine. For the group on hypnotherapy, these two measures were significantly lower when on hypnotherapy than when on the previous treatment. It is concluded that further trials of hypnotherapy are justified against some other treatment not solely associated with the ingestion of tablets.

Anderson JA, Basker MA, Dalton R, Migraine and hypnotherapy, International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis 1975; 23(1): 48-58.

Hypnosis Reduces Pain of Headaches and Anxiety: The improvement was confirmed by the subjective evaluation data gathered with the use of a questionnaire and by a significant reduction in anxiety scores.

Melis PM, Rooimans W, Spierings EL, Hoogduin CA, Treatment of chronic tension-type headache with hypnotherapy: a single-blind time controlled study. Headache 1991; 31(10): 686-9.

Hemodialysis

This study investigated the effect of hypnosis on anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleepiness in hemodialysis patients. Twenty-nine patients participated in the 15-day study. A single hypnosis session was performed on Day 8. Anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleepiness were measured at baseline, on Day 8, and on Day 15 (HADS, MFI, ESS). Daily fatigue was also measured numerically. Anxiety, depression, and sleepiness significantly decreased after hypnosis.

Untas, A., Chauveau, P., Dupré-Goudable, C., Kolko, A., Lakdja, F., & Cazenave, N. (2013). The Effects of Hypnosis on Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, and Sleepiness in People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Clinical Report. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 61(4), 475-483. doi:10.1080/00207144.2013.810485

HIV

This time-series study reports results of a 6-session self-hypnosis treatment (relaxation, deepening, imagery, and home practice) for 3 HIV-positive men suffering from pruritus, related to disease progression and/or HIV medications. Posttreatment, all 3 patients reported significant reductions in daily itch severity and extent of sleep disturbance due to itch. One patient also evidenced significantly less itch distress. Another also experienced significantly less time bothered by itch. For the 2 patients on which 4- month follow-up data were available, treatment benefit across variables was stable or further improved.

Rucklidge, J. J., & Saunders, D. (2002). The efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of pruritus in people with hiv/aids: A time-series analysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 50(2), 149-169. doi:10.1080/00207140208410096

Painful HIV distal sensory polyneuropathy (HIV-DSP): Brief hypnosis interventions have promise as a useful and well-tolerated tool for managing painful HIV-DSP meriting further investigation.

Dorfman, D., George, M. C., Schnur, J., Simpson, D. M., Davidson, G., & Montgomery, G. (2013). Hypnosis for Treatment of HIV Neuropathic Pain: A Preliminary Report. Pain Medicine, 14(7), 1048-1056. doi:10.1111/pme.12074

IBS

1000 Patients! These results provide further evidence that gut-focused hypnotherapy is an effective intervention for refractory IBS.

Mulak, A. (n.d.). Faculty of 1000 evaluation for Hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: An audit of one thousand adult patients. F1000 - Post-publication Peer Review of the Biomedical Literature. doi:10.3410/f.725376135.793504892

Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches.

Palsson, O. S. (2015). Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 58(2), 134-158. doi:10.1080/00029157.2015.1039114

GHT (Gut directed hypnotherapy) improves IBS-related quality of life, is superior to supportive me dical treatment alone, and shows a long-term effect even in refractory IBS.

Moser, G., Trägner, S., Gajowniczek, E. E., Mikulits, A., Michalski, M., Kazemi-Shirazi, L., . . . Miehsler, W. (2013). Long-Term Success of GUT-Directed Group Hypnosis for Patients With Refractory Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 108(4), 602-609. doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.19

Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The hypnotherapy patients showed a dramatic improvement in all features, the difference between the two groups being highly significant. In the hypnotherapy group no relapses were recorded during the 3-month follow-up period, and no substitution symptoms were observed.

Whorwell, P., Prior, A., & Faragher, E. (1984). Controlled Trial Of Hypnotherapy In The Treatment Of Severe Refractory Irritable-Bowel Syndrome. The Lancet, 324(8414), 1232-1234. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(84)92793-4

Immune System Response: Only hypnotized patients had significant alteration of immune response.

Ruzyla-Smith, P., Barabasz, A., Barabasz, M., & Warner, D. (1995). Effects of Hypnosis on the Immune Response: B-Cells, T-Cells, Helper and Suppressor Cells. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 38(2), 71-79. doi:10.1080/00029157.1995.10403185

Insomnia

PTSD Insomnia: There was a significant main effect of the hypnotherapy treatment with PTSD symptoms as measured by the Posttraumatic Disorder Scale. This effect was preserved at follow-up 1 month later. Additional benefits for the hypnotherapy group were decreases in intrusion and avoidance reactions and improvement in all sleep variables assessed.

Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Chronic Combat-Related PTSD Patients Suffering From Insomnia: A Randomized, Zolpidem-Controlled Clinical Trial Eitan G. Abramowitz, Yoram Barak, Irit Ben-Avi, and Haim Y. Knobler International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis Vol. 56 , Iss. 3,2008

Learning

Improved learning: Our results indicate that hypnosis is beneficial for second language vocabulary learning and retrieval.

Using Hypnosis to Enhance Learning Second Language Vocabulary. Yakup Çetin, O. Arda Çimen, and Zeynep Ebrar Yetkiner. American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 58 , Iss. 4,2016

Tele-hypnosis and behavioral issues: This study illustrates the benefits of self-hypnosis in the treatment of school refusal, while also enabling the patient to maintain the connection with the therapist so that the anxiety may be confronted when it arises.

Tele-hypnosis in the Treatment of Adolescent School Refusal. Alex Aviv MD. American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 49 , Iss. 1,2006

Academic performance: The two hypnotic training programs had a significant effect on the academic achievement of the participants, which was not found in the control groups.

The Effect of Hypnotic Training Programs on the Academic Performance of Students. H. M. De Vos and . A. Louw. American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 49 , Iss. 2,2006

Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation

Medical hypnosis is an effective, safe, noninvasive, and inexpensive tool for reducing the anticipatory distress and acclimatization time for NPPV (Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation). This therapy is particularly useful in children with traumatic experiences, such as a tracheotomy or facial surgical procedures.

Delord, V., Khirani, S., Ramirez, A., Joseph, E. L., Gambier, C., Belson, M., . . . Fauroux, B. (2013). Medical Hypnosis as a Tool to Acclimatize Children to Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation. Chest, 144(1), 87-91. doi:10.1378/chest.12-2259

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis pain and mobility: The treatment group reported a significant reduction in pain and mobility difficulties at week 12 compared to the control group.

Baird, C. L., & Sands, L. (2004). A pilot study of the effectiveness of guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation to reduce chronic pain and mobility difficulties of osteoarthritis. Pain Management Nursing, 5(3), 97-104. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2004.01.003

Pain

Studies report positive results, including statistically significant reductions in pain and anxiety/distress

Richardson, J., Smith, J. E., Mccall, G., & Pilkington, K. (2006). Hypnosis for Procedure- Related Pain and Distress in Pediatric Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness and Methodology Related to Hypnosis Interventions. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 31(1), 70-84. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2005.06.010

Results indicated significant decreases in gynecologic examination pain and in several measures assessing intercourse pain, and nonsignificant increases in threshold. Some indices of noncoital vulvar pain decreased. Overall sexual function, particularly sexual satisfaction, increased at posttreatment.

Pukall, C., Kandyba, K., Amsel, R., Khalifé, S., & Binik, Y. (2007). ORIGINAL RESEARCH—SEXUAL PAIN DISORDERS: Effectiveness of Hypnosis for the Treatment of Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 4(2), 417-425. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00425.x

The main disorders that have been treated by hypnotic techniques are migraines, asthma and gastrointestinal disorders. The results have shown a significant decrease of pain level and symptom relief for these patients.

Holdevici, I., & Crăciun, B. (2012). The use of Ericksonian hypnosis in somatic disorders. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 75-79. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.01.086

Hypnosis controls pain! Hypnosis has direct effects on many supraspinal sites involved in the experience of pain.

Jensen, M. P. (2009). Hypnosis for chronic pain management: A new hope. Pain, 146(3), 235-237. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2009.06.027

Dental pain: Self-hypnosis can be used in clinical practice as an adjunct to the gold standard of local anesthesia for pain management, as well as an alternative in individual cases.

Wolf, T. G., Wolf, D., Below, D., D’Hoedt, B., Willershausen, B., & Daubländer, M. (2016). Effectiveness of Self-Hypnosis on the Relief of Experimental Dental Pain: A Randomized Trial. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 64(2), 187-199. doi:10.1080/00207144.2016.113158

Painful HIV distal sensory polyneuropathy (HIV-DSP): Brief hypnosis interventions have promise as a useful and well-tolerated tool for managing painful HIV-DSP meriting further investigation.

Dorfman, D., George, M. C., Schnur, J., Simpson, D. M., Davidson, G., & Montgomery, G. (2013). Hypnosis for Treatment of HIV Neuropathic Pain: A Preliminary Report. Pain Medicine, 14(7), 1048-1056. doi:10.1111/pme.12074

As an anesthesia: Our case confirms the efficacy of hypnosis and demonstrates that it may be valuable as a sole anaesthetic method in selected cases. Hypnosis can prevent pain perception and surgical stress as a whole, comparing well with anaesthetic drugs.

Facco, E., Pasquali, S., Zanette, G., & Casiglia, E. (2013). Hypnosis as sole anaesthesia for skin tumour removal in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivity. Anaesthesia, 68(9), 961-965. doi:10.1111/anae.12251

The case examples demonstrate how the focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique is used with both acute and chronic pain conditions when use of long-term medication has been relatively ineffective.

Donatone, B. (2013). Focused Suggestion With Somatic Anchoring Technique: Rapid Self-Hypnosis for Pain Management. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 55(4), 325-342. doi:10.1080/00029157.2012.688896

A group mindfulness meditation training program can effectively reduce symptoms of anxiety and panic and can help maintain these reductions in patients with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or panic disorder with agoraphobia.

Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. (1992). American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(7), 936-943. doi:10.1176/ajp.149.7.936

Pain control: The results also indicated that hypnotic suggestion was equally effective in reducing both clinical and experimental pain. The overall results suggest broader application of hypnoanalgesic techniques with pain patients.

Montgomery, G. H., Duhamel, K. N., & Redd, W. H. (2000). A meta-analysis of hypnotically induced analgesia: How effective is hypnosis? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48(2), 138-153. doi:10.1080/00207140008410045

Pain in childbirth: Hetero-hypnosis and self-hypnosis were consistently shown to be more effective than standard medical care, supportive counseling, and childbirth education classes in reducing pain.

Landolt, A. S., & Milling, L. S. (2011). The efficacy of hypnosis as an intervention for labor and delivery pain: A comprehensive methodological review. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1022-1031. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.06.002

Hypnosis combined with local anesthesia is a feasible technique which allows extending inguinal hernia repair to a large population. There is no complication associated with its use.

Romain, B., Rodriguez, M., Story, F., Delhorme, J., Brigand, C., & Rohr, S. (2016). Outcomes of hypnosis combined with local anesthesia during inguinal repair: A pilot study. Hernia. doi:10.1007/s10029-016-1521-7

Hypnosis more effective than biofeedback: The hypnosis groups combined reported significantly more pain intensity reduction than the control group.

Tan, G., Rintala, D., Jensen, M., Fukui, T., Smith, D., & Williams, W. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of hypnosis compared with biofeedback for adults with chronic low back pain. European Journal of Pain,19(2), 271-280. doi:10.1002/ejp.545

Sickle Cell Disease: Recent findings suggest that patients may have two types of positive outcomes following hypnosis treatment: 1) a reduction in the severity of ongoing daily pain intensity; and 2) the ability to use self-hypnosis to experience greater intervals of comfort.

B., Wallen, G., Middleton, K., Ames, N., & Handel, D. (2014). Randomized Trial of Hypnosis as a Pain and Symptom Management Strategy in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease. Integrative Medicine Insights,25. doi:10.4137/imi.s18355

Pediatric surgery: Significantly lower postoperative pain ratings and shorter hospital stays occurred for children in the experimental group. State anxiety was decreased for the guided imagery group and increased postoperatively for the control group. This study demonstrates the positive effects of hypnosis/guided imagery for the pediatric surgical patient.

Lambert, S. A. (1996). The Effects of Hypnosis/Guided Imagery on the Postoperative Course of Children. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 17(5), 307- 310. doi:10.1097/00004703-199610000-00003

Post-surgical pain relief decreases need for opiates: The results of this retrospective study suggest that self-hypnosis provides an opioid-sparing effect for managing moderate-to-severe pediatric postoperative pain after Nuss procedure.

Mavi, J. (2014). Update of Postoperative Pain Management following Pectus Excavatum Repair. SOJ Anesthesiology & Pain Management, 1(1). doi:10.15226/2374-684x/1/1/00106

Conclusion: Pleasant imagery (PI) was an effective intervention in reducing fibromyalgic pain during the 28-day study period. Amitriptyline had no significant advantage over placebo during the study period.

Fors, E. A., Sexton, H., & Götestam, K. (2002). The effect of guided imagery and amitriptyline on daily fibromyalgia pain: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 36(3), 179-187. doi:10.1016/s0022-3956(02)00003-1

Osteoarthritis pain and mobility: The treatment group reported a significant reduction in pain and mobility difficulties at week 12 compared to the control group.

Baird, C. L., & Sands, L. (2004). A pilot study of the effectiveness of guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation to reduce chronic pain and mobility difficulties of osteoarthritis. Pain Management Nursing, 5(3), 97-104. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2004.01.003

Audio recordings for abdominal pain in children: Guided imagery treatment plus medical care was superior to standard medical care only for the treatment of abdominal pain, and treatment effects were sustained over a long period.

Tilburg, M. A., Chitkara, D. K., Palsson, O. S., Turner, M., Blois-Martin, N., Ulshen, M., & Whitehead, W. E. (2009). Audio-Recorded Guided Imagery Treatment Reduces Functional Abdominal Pain in Children: A Pilot Study. Pediatrics, 124(5). doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0028

Results: The authors found that the group receiving hypnosis had a significant drop in pain compared with the control group when measured by the McGill Pain Questionnaire but not when measured by other pain rating scales. Conclusion: The McGill Pain Questionnaire total score reflects multiple pain components, such as its affective component and various qualitative components, and is not merely a measure of pain intensity. Thus, the findings suggest that hypnosis affects multiple pain domains and that measures that assess these multiple domains may be more sensitive to the effects of hypnotic analgesia treatments.

Askay, S. W., Patterson, D. R., Jensen, M. P., & Sharar, S. R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of hypnosis for burn wound care. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52(3), 247-253. doi:10.1037/0090-5550.52.3.247

Meta-analysis of 18 studies revealed a moderate to large hypnoanalgesic effect, supporting the efficacy of hypnotic techniques for pain management. The results also indicated that hypnotic suggestion was equally effective in reducing both clinical and experimental pain.

A meta-analysis of hypnotically induced analgesia: How effective is hypnosis? Guy H. Montgomery, Katherine N. Duhamel, and William H. Redd International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis Vol. 48 , Iss. 2,2000

Headaches reduced in frequency and intensity through self-hypnosis: Data were available for 144 patients in this patient self-selected and uncontrolled observation. Compared with self-reports before learning self-hypnosis, children and youths who learned self-hypnosis for recurrent headaches reported reduction in frequency of headache from an average of 4.5 per week to 1.4 per week (P < .01), reduction in intensity (on a self-rating scale of 0 to 12) from an average of 10.3 to 4.7, P < .01, and reduction in average duration from 23.6 hours to 3.0 hours, (P < .01). There were no adverse side effects of self-hypnosis.

Kohen, D. P., & Zajac, R. (2007). Self-Hypnosis Training for Headaches in Children and Adolescents. The Journal of Pediatrics, 150(6), 635-639. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.02.014

More effective than biofeedback in spinal cord injury: Participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, reported statistically significant decreases in daily average pain pre- to posttreatment. These pre- to posttreatment decreases in pain reported by the HYP participants were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, also reported significant pre- to posttreatment increases in perceived control over pain

Jensen, M. P., Barber, J., Romano, J. M., Hanley, M. A., Raichle, K. A., Molton, I. R., . . . Patterson, D. R. (2009). Effects of Self-Hypnosis Training and EMG Biofeedback Relaxation Training on Chronic Pain in Persons with Spinal-Cord Injury. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 57(3), 239-268. doi:10.1080/00207140902881007

Hypnosis more effective in treating headache pain: The objective of the current study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of hypnosis for managing chronic pain. When compared with standard care, hypnosis provided moderate treatment benefit. Hypnosis also showed a moderate superior effect as compared to other psychological interventions for a nonheadache group. The results suggest that hypnosis is efficacious for managing chronic pain.

A Meta-Analysis of Hypnosis for Chronic Pain Problems: A Comparison Between Hypnosis, Standard Care, and Other Psychological Interventions Tomonori Adachi, Haruo Fujino, Aya Nakae, Takashi Mashimo, and Jun Sasaki1 International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis Vol. 62 , Iss. 1,2014

Breast cancer: Hypnosis was superior to attention control regarding propofol and lidocaine use; pain, nausea, fatigue, discomfort, and emotional upset at discharge; and institutional cost. Overall, the present data support the use of hypnosis with breast cancer surgery patients.

A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients Guy H. Montgomery, Dana H. Bovbjerg, Julie B. Schnur, Daniel David, Alisan Goldfarb, Christina R. Weltz, Clyde Schechter, Joshua Graff-Zivin, Kristin Tatrow, Donald D. Price and Jeffrey H. Silverstein JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst (2007) 99(17): 1304-1312.doi: 10.1093/jnci/djm106

Medical procedure: Hypnosis facilitated an adequate endoscopy intervention without any discomfort in 85% of the cases examined. Avoidance of anaesthesia reduces risk to the patient. Hence, hypnosis for gastrointestinal endoscopy appears to provide a promising strategy.

The Effectiveness of Clinical Hypnosis in the Digestive Endoscopy: A Multiple Case Report. Luis Domínguez-Ortega and Sarbelio Rodríguez-Muñoz. American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 53 , Iss. 2,2010

Dental hypnosis: Of the subjects who underwent hypnosis, only two subjects (8.3%) reported pain after induction of hypnosis. In the local anaesthetic group, 8 subjects (33.3%) reported pain. There was a significant difference between the two groups. The results of the study showed that patients in the hypnosis group had less pain during the first few hours post-operatively. Anxiety scores in the two groups were very close to each other and no statistically significant differences were observed in general and when each person was compared with himself or herself. Pain intensity in the two groups at 5- and 12-h post-operatively exhibited significant differences. In the hypnosis group, 10 patients (41.7%) took analgesic medication; in the local anaesthesia group, 22 patients (91.7%) took the analgesic medication (P = 0.0001). In other words, patients reported less pain when they were under hypnosis.

Abdeshahi, S. K., Hashemipour, M. A., Mesgarzadeh, V., Payam, A. S., & Monfared, A. H. (2013). Effect of hypnosis on induction of local anaesthesia, pain perception, control of haemorrhage and anxiety during extraction of third molars: A case– control study. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 41(4), 310-315. doi:10.1016/j.jcms.2012.10.009

Fibromyalgia: The analyses indicated that: 1) patients with FM who received multicomponent CBT alone or multicomponent CBT with hypnosis showed greater improvements than patients who received only standard care; and 2) adding hypnosis enhanced the effectiveness of multicomponent CBT. This study presents new evidence about the efficacy of multicomponent CBT for FM and about the additional effects of hypnosis as a complement to CBT.

Castel, A., Cascón, R., Padrol, A., Sala, J., & Rull, M. (2012). Multicomponent Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy With Hypnosis for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: Long-Term Outcome. The Journal of Pain, 13(3), 255-265. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2011.11.005

Painful procedures, treatments, or diseases remain a major nursing challenge, and nurses need complementary ways to relieve pain from surgery, tumors, injuries, and chemotherapy. This article examines the evidence based related to hypnosis for pain management, as well as how to assess and educate patients about hypnosis.

Hypnosis for Pain Management. Sharon M. Valente, RN, CS, PhD, FAAN. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. February 2006 - Volume 44 · Issue 2: 22-30

Study 1: Hypnosis Pain Management Patients Healed 41% faster from fracture; Study 2: Healed significantly faster from surgery: Two studies from Harvard Medical School show hypnosis significantly reduces the time it takes  to heal.

Harvard Medical School, Carol Ginandes and Union Institute in Cincinnati, Patricia Brooks, Harvard University Gazette Online.

Hypnosis Reduces Frequency and Intensity of Migraines: Compared the treatment of migraine by hypnosis and autohypnosis with the treatment of migraine by the drug prochlorperazine (Stemetil). Results show that the number of attacks and the number of people who suffered blinding attacks were significantly lower for the group receiving hypnotherapy than for the group receiving prochlorperazine. For the group on hypnotherapy, these two measures were significantly lower when on hypnotherapy than when on the previous treatment. It is concluded that further trials of hypnotherapy are justified against some other treatment not solely associated with the ingestion of tablets.

Anderson JA, Basker MA, Dalton R, Migraine and hypnotherapy, International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis 1999; 23(1): 48-58.

Hypnosis Reduces Pain and Speeds up Recovery from Surgery

[Hypnosis and its application in surgery] Faymonville ME, Defechereux T, Joris J, Adant JP, Hamoir E, Meurisse M, Service d'Anesthesie-Reanimation, Universite de Liege, Rev Med Liege. 1998 Jul;53(7):414-8.

Hypnosis Reduces Pain Intensity

Dahlgren LA, Kurtz RM, Strube MJ, Malone MD, Differential effects of hypnotic suggestion on multiple dimensions of pain. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 1995; 10(6): 464-70.

Hypnosis Reduces Pain of Headaches and Anxiety: The improvement was confirmed by the subjective evaluation data gathered with the use of a questionnaire and by a significant reduction in anxiety scores.

Melis PM, Rooimans W, Spierings EL, Hoogduin CA, Treatment of chronic tension- type headache with hypnotherapy: a single-blind time controlled study. Headache 1999; 31(10): 686-9.

Hypnosis Lowered Post-treatment Pain in Burn Injuries: Results: The authors found that the group receiving hypnosis had a significant drop in pain compared with the control group when measured by the McGill Pain Questionnaire but not when measured by other pain rating scales. Conclusion: The McGill Pain Questionnaire total score reflects multiple pain components, such as its affective component and various qualitative components, and is not merely a measure of pain intensity. Thus, the findings suggest that hypnosis affects multiple pain domains and that measures that assess these multiple domains may be more sensitive to the effects of hypnotic analgesia treatments.

Patterson DR, Ptacek JT, Baseline pain as a moderator of hypnotic analgesia for burn injury treatment. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 1997; 65(1): 60-7.

Hypnosis Lowered Phantom Limb Pain: Hypnotic procedures appear to be a useful adjunct to established strategies for the treatment of phantom limb pain and would repay further, more systematic, investigation. Suggestions are provided as to the factors which should be considered for a more systematic research program.

Oakley DA, Whitman LG, Halligan PW, Department of Psychology, University College, London, UK 2009.

Hypnosis Has a Reliable and Significant Impact on Acute and Chronic Pain: Hypnosis has been demonstrated to reduce analogue pain, and studies on the mechanisms of laboratory pain reduction have provided useful applications to clinical populations. Studies showing central nervous system activity during hypnotic procedures offer preliminary information concerning possible physiological mechanisms of hypnotic analgesia. Randomized controlled studies with clinical populations indicate that hypnosis has a reliable and significant impact on acute procedural pain and chronic pain conditions. Methodological issues of this body of research are discussed, as are methods to better integrate hypnosis into comprehensive pain treatment.

Hypnosis and clinical pain. Patterson DR, Jensen MP, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA USA 98104 Psychol Bull. 2003 Jul;129(4):495-521.

Hypnosis is a Powerful Tool in Pain Therapy and is Biological in Addition to Psychological: Attempting to elucidate cerebral mechanisms behind hypnotic analgesia, we measured regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography in patients with fibromyalgia, during hypnotically-induced analgesia and resting wakefulness. The patients experienced less pain during hypnosis than at rest. The cerebral blood-flow was bilaterally increased in the orbitofrontal and subcallosial cingulate cortices, the right thalamus, and the left inferior parietal cortex, and was decreased bilaterally in the cingulate cortex. The observed blood-flow pattern supports notions of a multifactorial nature of hypnotic analgesia, with an interplay between cortical and subcortical brain dynamics.

Functional anatomy of hypnotic analgesia: a PET study of patients with fibromyalgia. Wik G, Fischer H, Bragee B, Finer B, Fredrikson M, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Karolinska Institute and Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Eur J Pain. 1999 Mar;3(1):7-12.

Pediatrics

Nocturnal enuresis in children: The use of hypnosis was safe and moderately helpful, particularly for anxiety disorder or nocturnal enuresis.

M. (2013). Hypnosis in 53 Children With Anxiety Disorders, Nocturnal Enuresis, or Insomnia. International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics. doi:10.4021/ijcp104w

Tonsillectomy in children: TS may help lower pain in children post tonsillectomy and decrease demand for IV opioid pain management in the 4- to 8-year-old tonsillectomy population.

Martin, S., Smith, A. B., Newcomb, P., & Miller, J. (2014). Effects of Therapeutic Suggestion Under Anesthesia on Outcomes in Children Post Tonsillectomy. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 29(2), 94-106. doi:10.1016/j.jopan.2013.03.011

Pediatric surgery: Significantly lower postoperative pain ratings and shorter hospital stays occurred for children in the experimental group. State anxiety was decreased for the guided imagery group and increased postoperatively for the control group. This study demonstrates the positive effects of hypnosis/guided imagery for the pediatric surgical patient.

Lambert, S. A. (1996). The Effects of Hypnosis/Guided Imagery on the Postoperative Course of Children. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 17(5), 307- 310. doi:10.1097/00004703-199610000-00003

Audio recordings for abdominal pain in children: Guided imagery treatment plus medical care was superior to standard medical care only for the treatment of abdominal pain, and treatment effects were sustained over a long period.

Tilburg, M. A., Chitkara, D. K., Palsson, O. S., Turner, M., Blois-Martin, N., Ulshen, M., & Whitehead, W. E. (2009). Audio-Recorded Guided Imagery Treatment Reduces Functional Abdominal Pain in Children: A Pilot Study. Pediatrics, 124(5). doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0028

Stop habit coughing: Habit cough is triggered by various physiologic conditions, related frequently to other diagnoses, and it is associated with significant school absence. Self- hypnosis offers a safe efficient treatment.

Anbar, R. D., & Hall, H. R. (2004). Childhood habit cough treated with self-hypnosis. The Journal of Pediatrics, 144(2), 213-217. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2003.10.041

Phantom Limb Pain

Hypnosis Lowered Phantom Limb Pain: Hypnotic procedures appear to be a useful adjunct to established strategies for the treatment of phantom limb pain and would repay further, more systematic, investigation. Suggestions are provided as to the factors which should be considered for a more systematic research program.

Treatment of phantom limb pain using hypnotic imagery. Oakley DA, Whitman LG, Halligan PW, Department of Psychology, University College, London, UK.

PTSD

PTSD: Abreactive hypnosis emphasized hypnotically activated “reliving” of the trauma experience to physical and psychological exhaustion. In study #1 hypnosis and control group’s reduced PTSD checklist (PCL) scores immediately post treatment (placebo PCL score mean reduction 17. 34 and EST treatment PCL mean reduction 53.11). However, only the hypnosis patients maintained significant treatment effects at followups. Study #2 used the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), Beck Depression II (BDI – II), and Beck Anxiety Scales (BAI). Only the hypnosis group showed significant positive effects from pretreatment to all post treatment measurement periods.

M, B. A. (2013). Hypnosis for PTSD: Evidence Based Placebo-Controlled Studies. Journal of Trauma & Treatment, S4. doi:10.4172/2167-1222.s4-006

PTSD: New uses of hypnosis in the psychotherapy of PTSD victims involve coupling access to the dissociated traumatic memories with positive restructuring of those memories. Hypnosis can be used to help patients face and bear a traumatic experience by embedding it in a new context, acknowledging helplessness during the event, and yet linking that experience with remoralizing memories such as efforts at self-protection, shared affection with friends who were killed, or the ability to control the environment at other times. In this way, hypnosis can be used to provide controlled access to memories that are then placed into a broader perspective.

Spiegel, D. (n.d.). Hypnosis in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Casebook of Clinical Hypnosis., 99-111. doi:10.1037/11090-005

PTSD Obstetrics: These cases illustrate the potential value of hypnosis and alternative psychological approaches in managing women with severe antenatal anxiety.

Slater, P. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder managed successfully with hypnosis and the rewind technique: Two cases in obstetric patients. International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 24(3), 272-275. doi:10.1016/j.ijoa.2015.03.003

PTSD Insomnia: There was a significant main effect of the hypnotherapy treatment with PTSD symptoms as measured by the Posttraumatic Disorder Scale. This effect was preserved at follow-up 1 month later. Additional benefits for the hypnotherapy group were decreases in intrusion and avoidance reactions and improvement in all sleep variables assessed.

Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Chronic Combat-Related PTSD Patients Suffering From Insomnia: A Randomized, Zolpidem-Controlled Clinical Trial Eitan G. Abramowitz, Yoram Barak, Irit Ben-Avi, and Haim Y. Knobler International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis Vol. 56 , Iss. 3,2008

Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle Cell Disease: Recent findings suggest that patients may have two types of positive outcomes following hypnosis treatment: 1) a reduction in the severity of ongoing daily pain intensity; and 2) the ability to use self-hypnosis to experience greater intervals of comfort.

B., Wallen, G., Middleton, K., Ames, N., & Handel, D. (2014). Randomized Trial of Hypnosis as a Pain and Symptom Management Strategy in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease. Integrative Medicine Insights,25. doi:10.4137/imi.s18355

Smoking

Hypnotherapy is more effective than nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Hypnosis and HNRT were over three times more likely than NRT only participants to abstain at 26-weeks.

Hasan, F. M., Zagarins, S. E., Pischke, K. M., Saiyed, S., Bettencourt, A. M., Beal, L., . . . Mccleary, N. (2014). Hypnotherapy is more effective than nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 22(1), 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2013.12.012

It was concluded that hypnosis combined with NP compares favorably with standard behavioral counseling in generating long-term quit rates.

Carmody, T., Duncan, C., Simon, J., Solkowitz, S., Huggins, J., Lee, S., & Delucchi, K. (2008). Hypnosis for smoking cessation: A randomized trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 10(5), 811-818. doi:10.1080/14622200802023833

Smoking Cessation: 81% Quit smoking with hypnosis, and the majority of those who quit remained smoke-free a year later.

Elkins, G. R., & Rajab, M. H. (2004). Clinical Hypnosis For Smoking Cessation: Preliminary Results of a Three-Session Intervention. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 52(1), 73-81. doi:10.1076/iceh.52.1.73.23921

Acupuncture and hypnosis are top methods for smoking cessation.

Tahiri, M., Mottillo, S., & Joseph, L. (2012). Alternative Smoking Cessation Aids: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 56(4), 1179. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2012.08.049

Tobacco dependency: Of 43 consecutive patients undergoing this treatment protocol, 39 reported remaining abstinent at follow-up (6 months to 3 years posttreatment).

Barber, J. (2001). Freedom from smoking: Integrating hypnotic methods and rapid smoking to facilitate smoking cessation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 49(3), 257-266. doi:10.1080/00207140108410075

Aversion and hypnosis combined. Smoking cessation: After the 2-wk. program, 92% or 86 of the men and 90% or 84 of the women reported abstinence, and at 3-mo. follow- up, 86% or 80 of the men and 87% or 81 of the women reported continued abstinence.

Johnson, D. L., & Karkut, R. T. (1994). Performance By Gender In A Stop-Smoking Program Combining Hypnosis And Aversion. Psychological Reports, 75(2), 851-857. doi:10.2466/pr0.1994.75.2.851

90.6% Success Rate for Smoking Cessation Using Hypnosis: Of 43 consecutive patients undergoing this treatment protocol, 39 reported remaining abstinent from tobacco use at follow-up (6 months to 3 years post-treatment). This represents a 90.6% success rate using hypnosis.

University of Washington School of Medicine, Depts. of Anesthesiology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2001 Jul;49(3):257-66. Barber J.

87% Reported Abstinence From Tobacco Use With Hypnosis: A field study of 93 male and 93 female CMHC outpatients examined the facilitation of smoking cessation by using hypnosis. At 3-month follow-up, 86% of the men and 87% of the women reported continued abstinence from the use of tobacco using hypnosis.

Performance by gender in a stop-smoking program combining hypnosis and aversion. Johnson DL, Karkut RT. Adkar Associates, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana. Psychol Rep. 1994 Oct;75(2):851-7. PMID: 7862796

81% Reported They Had Stopped Smoking After Hypnosis: Thirty smokers enrolled in an HMO were referred by their primary physician for treatment. Twenty-one patients returned after an initial consultation and received hypnosis for smoking cessation. At the end of treatment, 81% of those patients reported that they had stopped smoking, and 48% reported abstinence at 12 months post-treatment.

Texas A&M University, System Health Science Center, College of Medicine, College Station, TX USA. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2004 Jan;52(1):73-81. Clinical hypnosis for smoking cessation: preliminary results of a three-session intervention. Elkins GR, Rajab MH.

Hypnosis Patients Twice As Likely To Remain Smoke-Free After Two Years: Study of 71 smokers showed that after a two-year follow up, patients that quit with hypnosis were twice as likely to remain smoke-free than those who quit on their own.

Guided health imagery for smoking cessation and long-term abstinence. Wynd, CA. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2005; 37:3, pages 245-250.

Hypnosis More Effective Than Drug Interventions For Smoking Cessation: Group hypnosis sessions, evaluated at a less effective success rate (22% success) than individualized hypnosis sessions. However, group hypnosis sessions were still demonstrated here as being more effective than drug interventions.

Ohio State University, College of Nursing, Columbus, OH 43210, USA Descriptive outcomes of the American Lung Association of Ohio hypnotherapy smoking cessation program. Ahijevych K, Yerardi R, Nedilsky N.

Hypnosis Most Effective Says Largest Study Ever: 3 Times as Effective as Patch and 15 Times as Effective as Willpower. Hypnosis is the most effective way of giving up smoking, according to the largest ever scientific comparison of ways of breaking the habit. A meta-analysis, statistically combining results of more than 600 studies of 72,000 people from America and Europe to compare various methods of quitting. On average, hypnosis was over three times as effective as nicotine replacement methods and 15 times as effective as trying to quit alone.

University of Iowa, Journal of Applied Psychology, How One in Five Give Up Smoking. October 1992., 2013.)

Spinal Cord Injury

More effective than biofeedback in spinal cord injury: Participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, reported statistically significant decreases in daily average pain pre- to posttreatment. These pre- to posttreatment decreases in pain reported by the HYP participants were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, also reported significant pre- to posttreatment increases in perceived control over pain

Jensen, M. P., Barber, J., Romano, J. M., Hanley, M. A., Raichle, K. A., Molton, I. R., . . . Patterson, D. R. (2009). Effects of Self-Hypnosis Training and EMG Biofeedback Relaxation Training on Chronic Pain in Persons with Spinal-Cord Injury. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 57(3), 239-268. doi:10.1080/00207140902881007

Sports Performance

Sports performance: The results indicated that all five participants in- creased both their mean basketball three-point shooting performance and their mean flow scores from baseline to intervention.

Pates, J., Cummings, A., & Maynard, I. (2002). The Effects of Hypnosis on Flow States and Three-Point Shooting Performance in Bastketball Players. The Sport Psychologist, 16(1), 34-47. doi:10.1123/tsp.16.1.34

Golf performance: These results support the hypothesis that an hypnotic intervention can improve golf-chipping performance and increase feelings and cognitions associated with flow.

Pates, J. (2000). Effects Of Hypnosis On Flow States And Golf Performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91(7), 1057. doi:10.2466/pms.91.7.1057-1075

Athletes: The 14 athletes participating imaged each situation in and out of hypnosis— half of the time the imagery in hypnosis came first and half after. The participants reported that the imagery under hypnosis was more intense for each dimension and more intense for each situation. Whether the imagery was done under hypnosis first or after was not significant. The findings suggest that hypnosis substantially enhances imagery intensity and effectiveness.

Liggett, D. R. (2000). Enhancing Imagery through Hypnosis: A Performance Aid for Athletes. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 43(2), 149-157. doi:10.1080/00029157.2000.1040426

Stroke Patients

Stroke rehabilitation: We observed qualitative improvements in motor function related to increased range of motion, increased grip strength, and reduced spasticity of the paretic upper limb. Subjects consistently reported an improved outlook, increased motivation, as well as greater awareness of and decreased effort to perform motor tasks with the paretic limb.

Diamond, S. G., Davis, O. C., Schaechter, J. D., & Howe, R. D. (2006). Hypnosis for rehabilitation after stroke: Six case studies. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23(4), 173-180. doi:10.1002/ch.319

Post-stroke: Even some serious medical cases such as cancer and heart attacks, hypnotherapy accelerate recovery of a patient. It is very possible because directed hypnotherapy to boost the immune system and reprogram individual attitude towards her illness. In hypnotherapy there is a progressive relaxation technique, relaxation technique that is done by focusing on the contraction and relaxation of the muscles of the body. So the therapy for post-stroke patients using hypnotherapy, especially with the use of progressive relaxation techniques, can help reduce muscle tension in patients with post-stroke.

RAMA, Tamyis Ade; NAPRI, Muhammad. Hypnotherapy to Reduce Post-Stroke Muscle Tension in Indonesia. Scientific Journal of PPI - UKM, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 53-56, apr. 2015. ISSN 2356-2536

Substance Abuse

77% success rate in treating Substance Abuse. Combining the more intense treatment of 20 daily sessions with hypnosis is a successful method to treat addictions. The treatment has been used with 18 clients over the last 7 years and has shown a 77 percent success rate for at least a 1-year follow-up.

Intensive Therapy: Utilizing Hypnosis in the Treatment of Substance Abuse Disorders. Greg Potter. American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 47 , Iss. 1,2004

Significantly More Methadone Addicts Quit with Hypnosis. 94% Remained Narcotic Free: Significant differences were found on all measures. The experimental group had significantly less discomfort and illicit drug use, and a significantly greater amount of cessation. At six month follow up, 94% of the subjects in the experimental group who had achieved cessation remained narcotic free.

A comparative study of hypnotherapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of methadone addicts. Manganiello AJ, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1984; 26(4): 273-9.

Hypnosis Shows 77 Percent Success Rate for Drug Addiction: Treatment has been used with 18 clients over the last 7 years and has shown a 77 percent success rate for at least a 1-year follow-up. 15 were being seen for alcoholism or alcohol abuse, 2 clients were being seen for cocaine addiction, and 1 client had a marijuana addiction

Intensive Therapy: Utilizing Hypnosis in the Treatment of Substance Abuse Disorders. Potter, Greg, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Jul 2004.

Raised Self-esteem & Serenity. Lowered Impulsivity and Anger: In a research study on self-hypnosis for relapse prevention training with chronic drug/alcohol users. Participants were 261 veterans admitted to Substance Abuse Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Programs (SARRTPs). individuals who used repeated self-hypnosis "at least 3 to 5 times a week," at 7-week follow-up, reported the highest levels of self-esteem and serenity, and the least anger/impulsivity, in comparison to the minimal-practice and control groups.

American Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy (a publication of the American Psychological Association) 2004 Apr;46(4):281-97)

Hypnosis For Cocaine Addiction Documented Case Study: Hypnosis was successfully used to overcome a $500 (five grams) per day cocaine addiction. The subject was a female in her twenties. After approximately 8 months of addiction, she decided to use hypnosis in an attempt to overcome the addiction itself. Over the next 4 months, she used hypnosis three times a day and at the end of this period, her addiction was broken, and she has been drug free for the past 9 years. Hypnosis was the only intervention, and no support network of any kind was available.

The use of hypnosis in cocaine addiction. Page RA, Handley GW, Ohio State University, Lima, OH USA 45804. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1993 Oct;36(2):120-3.

Surgical Procedures

Hypnosis significantly alleviates preoperative anxiety.

Saadat, H., Drummond-Lewis, J., Maranets, I., Kaplan, D., Saadat, A., Wang, S., & Kain, Z. N. (2006). Hypnosis Reduces Preoperative Anxiety in Adult Patients. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 102(5), 1394-1396. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000204355.36015.54

Self-hypnosis training represents a rapid, cost-effective, non addictive and safe alternative to medication for the treatment of anxiety-related conditions. The tremendous volume of research provides compelling evidence that hypnosis is an efficacious treatment for state anxiety (e.g., prior to tests, surgery and medical procedures) and anxiety-related disorders, such as headaches and irritable bowel syndrome.

Hammond, D. C. (2010). Hypnosis in the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 10(2), 263-273. doi:10.1586/ern.09.140

As an anesthesia: Our case confirms the efficacy of hypnosis and demonstrates that it may be valuable as a sole anaesthetic method in selected cases. Hypnosis can prevent pain perception and surgical stress as a whole, comparing well with anaesthetic drugs.

Facco, E., Pasquali, S., Zanette, G., & Casiglia, E. (2013). Hypnosis as sole anaesthesia for skin tumour removal in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivity. Anaesthesia, 68(9), 961-965. doi:10.1111/anae.12251

As sedation in eye surgery: Hypnosis can be an effective means of controlling vital signs at different intervals of starting the ophthalmic surgery compared to intravenous sedation. In the hypnosis group anxiety was similar to IV sedation group, but O2 saturation was more desirable.

Tay, E. (n.d.). Effect of intravenous (IV) sedation on patient satisfaction after cataract surgery with topical anaesthesia. Http://isrctn.org/. doi:10.1186/isrctn97320691

Hypnosis combined with local anesthesia is a feasible technique which allows extending inguinal hernia repair to a large population. There is no complication associated with its use.

Romain, B., Rodriguez, M., Story, F., Delhorme, J., Brigand, C., & Rohr, S. (2016). Outcomes of hypnosis combined with local anesthesia during inguinal repair: A pilot study. Hernia. doi:10.1007/s10029-016-1521-7

Medical outcomes: Random effects meta-analyses revealed positive treatment effects on emotional distress (g = 0.53, CI 95% [0.37; 0.69]), pain (g = 0.44, CI 95% [0.26; 0.61]), medication consumption (g = 0.38, CI 95% [0.20; 0.56]), physiological parameters (g = 0.10, CI 95% [0.02; 0.18]), recovery (g = 0.25, CI 95% [0.04; 0.46]), and surgical procedure time (g = 0.25, CI 95% [0.12; 0.38]). In conclusion, benefits of hypnosis on various surgically relevant outcomes were demonstrated.

Tefikow, S., Barth, J., Maichrowitz, S., Beelmann, A., Strauss, B., & Rosendahl, J. (2013). Efficacy of hypnosis in adults undergoing surgery or medical procedures: A meta- analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(5), 623-636. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.03.005

Breast cancer, improves wound healing: During surgery, hypnosis may be applied to limit immunosuppression, while, in the postoperative period, it can reduce pain, anxiety, and fatigue and improve wound healing.

Potié, A., Roelants, F., Pospiech, A., Momeni, M., & Watremez, C. (2016). Hypnosis in the Perioperative Management of Breast Cancer Surgery: Clinical Benefits and Potential Implications. Anesthesiology Research and Practice, 2016, 1-8. doi:10.1155/2016/2942416

Post-surgical pain relief decreases need for opiates: The results of this retrospective study suggest that self-hypnosis provides an opioid-sparing effect for managing moderate-to-severe pediatric postoperative pain after Nuss procedure.

Mavi, J. (2014). Update of Postoperative Pain Management following Pectus Excavatum Repair. SOJ Anesthesiology & Pain Management, 1(1). doi:10.15226/2374-684x/1/1/00106

Pre-surgical preparation: Hypnosis session prior to surgery was an effective complementary method in decreasing presurgical anxiety, and it resulted in better pain control as well as reduced ventilator assistance following CABG surgery.

Guner, B., Çırak, M., Çelik, D., Hergünsel, O., Bedirhan, S., & Akgul, A. (2016). The Beneficial Effect of Hypnosis in Elective Cardiac Surgery: A Preliminary Study. The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon,64(07), 581-588. doi:10.1055/s-0036-1580623

Tonsillectomy in children: TS may help lower pain in children post tonsillectomy and decrease demand for IV opioid pain management in the 4- to 8-year-old tonsillectomy population.

Martin, S., Smith, A. B., Newcomb, P., & Miller, J. (2014). Effects of Therapeutic Suggestion Under Anesthesia on Outcomes in Children Post Tonsillectomy. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 29(2), 94-106. doi:10.1016/j.jopan.2013.03.011

Pediatric surgery: Significantly lower postoperative pain ratings and shorter hospital stays occurred for children in the experimental group. State anxiety was decreased for the guided imagery group and increased postoperatively for the control group. This study demonstrates the positive effects of hypnosis/guided imagery for the pediatric surgical patient.

Lambert, S. A. (1996). The Effects of Hypnosis/Guided Imagery on the Postoperative Course of Children. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 17(5), 307- 310. doi:10.1097/00004703-199610000-00003

Knee surgery: Significantly greater knee strength and significantly less reinjury anxiety and pain for treatment group participants at 24 weeks post surgery than for placebo and control group participants. Conclusions: Relaxation and imagery may be beneficial to ACL rehabilitation, thus warranting further research on mechanisms of obtained effects

Cupal, D. D., & Brewer, B. W. (2001). Effects of relaxation and guided imagery on knee strength, reinjury anxiety, and pain following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Rehabilitation Psychology, 46(1), 28-43. doi:10.1037//0090- 5550.46.1.28

Decrease need for blood transfusion: Our study showed that using positive suggestions in the perioperative period significantly decreases the necessity for transfusion.

Effects of Positive Suggestions on the Need for Red Blood Cell Transfusion in Orthopedic Surgery Csenge Szeverényi, Zoltán Csernátony, Ágnes Balogh, Tünde Simon, and Katalin Varga International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis Vol. 64 , Iss. 4,2016

Medical procedure: Hypnosis facilitated an adequate endoscopy intervention without any discomfort in 85% of the cases examined. Avoidance of anaesthesia reduces risk to the patient. Hence, hypnosis for gastrointestinal endoscopy appears to provide a promising strategy.

The Effectiveness of Clinical Hypnosis in the Digestive Endoscopy: A Multiple Case Report. Luis Domínguez-Ortega and Sarbelio Rodríguez-Muñoz. American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 53 , Iss. 2,2010

Accelerated healing of surgical incisions: Analysis of variance showed the hypnosis group's objectively observed wound healing to be significantly greater than the other two groups', p < .001, through 7 postoperative weeks; standard care controls showed the smallest degree of healing. In addition, at both the 1 and 7 week post-surgical observation intervals, one-way analyses showed the hypnosis group to be significantly more healed than the usual care controls, p <0. 02. The mean scores of the subjective assessments of postoperative pain, incision healing and functional recovery trended similarly.

Can Medical Hypnosis Accelerate Post-Surgical Wound Healing? Results of a Clinical Trial. Carol Ginandes Ph.D., Patricia Brooks, William Sando, Christopher Jones, and John Aker American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 45 , Iss. 4,2003

Vocal issues: Hypnosis has previously proven efficacious for treating vocal cord dysfunction, and in this case, hypnotic techniques were major factors in successful symptom control.

Hypnosis for Asthma and Vocal Cord Dysfunction in a Patient With Autism. Robert Kaslovsky and David Gottsegen. American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 58 , Iss. 2,2015

Painful procedures, treatments, or diseases remain a major nursing challenge, and nurses need complementary ways to relieve pain from surgery, tumors, injuries, and chemotherapy. This article examines the evidence based related to hypnosis for pain management, as well as how to assess and educate patients about hypnosis.

Hypnosis for Pain Management. Sharon M. Valente, RN, CS, PhD, FAAN. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. February 2006 - Volume 44 · Issue 2: 22-30

Hypnosis Lowered Post-treatment Pain in Burn Injuries: Patients in the hypnosis group reported less post treatment pain than did patients in the control group. The findings are used to replicate earlier studies of burn pain hypnoanalgesia, explain discrepancies in the literature, and highlight the potential importance of motivation with this population.

Patterson DR, Ptacek JT, Baseline pain as a moderator of hypnotic analgesia for burn injury treatment. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 1997; 65(1): 60-7.

Healed 41% faster from fracture; Healed significantly faster from surgery: Two studies from Harvard Medical School show hypnosis significantly reduces the time it takes to heal. Study One: Six weeks after an ankle fracture, those in the hypnosis group showed the equivalent of eight and a half weeks of healing. Study Two: Three groups of people studied after breast reduction surgery. Hypnosis group healed "significantly faster" than supportive attention group and control group.

Harvard Medical School, Carol Ginandes and Union Institute in Cincinnati, Patricia Brooks, Harvard University Gazette Online

Tinnitus

The results have shown that 73% of self-hypnosis subjects reported disappearance of tinnitus during treatment sessions, as compared with only 24% in the brief auditory stimulus group. Moreover, the short-term (1 week) and long-term (2 months) symptom profiles of only SH subject: revealed a significant improvement.

Attias, J., Shemesh, Z., Shoham, C., Shahar, A., & Sohmer, H. (1990). Efficacy of Self- Hypnosis for Tinnitus Relief. Scandinavian Audiology, 19(4), 245-249. doi:10.3109/01050399009070779

Vocal Cord Injury

Vocal issues: Hypnosis has previously proven efficacious for treating vocal cord dysfunction, and in this case, hypnotic techniques were major factors in successful symptom control.

Hypnosis for Asthma and Vocal Cord Dysfunction in a Patient With Autism. Robert Kaslovsky and David Gottsegen. American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 58 , Iss. 2,2015

Weight Loss

Weight Loss: Hypnosis helped people lose weight in both the short-term and in the long-term. In other words, hypnosis helps people keep from regaining weight!

Kirsch, I. (1996). Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments: Another meta-reanalysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(3), 517-519. doi:10.1037//0022-006x.64.3.517

Hypnosis Over 30 Times as Effective for Weight Loss: Investigated the effects of hypnosis in weight loss for 60 females, at least 20% overweight. Treatment included group hypnosis with metaphors for ego-strengthening, decision making and motivation, ideomotor exploration in individual hypnosis, and group hypnosis with maintenance suggestions. Hypnosis was more effective than a control group: an average of 17 lbs lost by the hypnosis group vs. an average of 0.5 lbs lost by the control group, on follow-up.

Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, J. (1986). Hypnotherapy in weight loss treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 489-492.

Two Years Later: Hypnosis Subjects Continued To Lose Significant Weight: 109 people completed a behavioral treatment for weight management either with or without the addition of hypnosis. At the end of the 9-week program, both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. At 8-month and 2-year follow-ups, the hypnosis subjects were found to have continued to lose significant weight, while those in the behavioral-treatment-only group showed little further change.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1985)

Hypnosis Subjects Lost More Weight Than 90% of Others and Kept it Off: Researchers analyzed 18 studies comparing a cognitive behavioral therapy such as relaxation training, guided imagery, self monitoring, or goal setting with the same therapy supplemented by hypnosis. Those who received the hypnosis lost more weight than 90 percent of those not receiving hypnosis and maintained the weight loss two years after treatment ended.

University of Connecticut, Storrs Allison DB, Faith MS. Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obesity: a meta-analytic reappraisal. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64(3):513-516.

Hypnosis More Than Doubled Average Weight Loss: Study of the effect of adding hypnosis to cognitive-behavioral treatments for weight reduction, additional data were obtained from authors of two studies. Analyses indicated that the benefits of hypnosis increased substantially over time.

Kirsch, Irving (1996). Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments--Another meta-reanalysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64 (3), 517-519.

Hypnosis Showed Significantly Lower Post-Treatment Weights: Two studies compared overweight smoking and non-smoking adult women in an hypnosis-based, weight-loss program. Both achieved significant weight losses and decreases in Body Mass Index. Follow-up study replicated significant weight losses and declines in Body Mass Index. The overt aversion and hypnosis program yielded significantly lower post-treatment weights and a greater average number of pounds lost.

Weight loss for women: studies of smokers and nonsmokers using hypnosis and multi-component treatments with and without overt aversion. Johnson DL, Psychology Reprints. 1997 Jun;80(3 Pt 1):931-3.

Hypnotherapy group with stress reduction achieved significantly more weight loss than the other two treatments: Randomised, controlled, parallel study of two forms of hypnotherapy (directed at stress reduction or energy intake reduction), vs dietary advice alone in 60 obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea on nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

J Stradling, D Roberts, A Wilson and F Lovelock, Chest Unit, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7LJ, UK

Hypnosis can more than double the effects of traditional weight loss approaches: An analysis of five weight loss studies reported in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in 1996 showed that the "… weight loss reported in the five studies indicates that hypnosis can more than double the effects" of traditional weight loss approaches.

University of Connecticut, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in 1996 (Vol. 64, No. 3, pgs 517-519).

Weight loss is greater where hypnosis is utilized: Research into cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments established that weight loss is greater where hypnosis is utilized. It was also established that the benefits of hypnosis increase over time.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1996)

Showed Hypnosis As "An Effective Way To Lose Weight": A study of 60 females who were at least 20% overweight and not involved in other treatment showed hypnosis is an effective way to lose weight.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1986)

Women’s Health

Results indicated significant decreases in gynecologic examination pain and in several measures assessing intercourse pain, and nonsignificant increases in threshold. Some indices of noncoital vulvar pain decreased. Overall sexual function, particularly sexual satisfaction, increased at posttreatment.

Pukall, C., Kandyba, K., Amsel, R., Khalifé, S., & Binik, Y. (2007). ORIGINAL RESEARCH—SEXUAL PAIN DISORDERS: Effectiveness of Hypnosis for the Treatment of Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 4(2), 417-425. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00425.x

Hot Flashes: subjective hot flash frequency from baseline to week 12 showed a mean reduction of 55.82 hot flashes for the clinical hypnosis intervention (74.16%), versus a 12.89 hot flash reduction (17.13%) for the control (p<.001, 95% CI, 36.15–49.67).

Elkins, G. R., Fisher, W. I., & Johnson, A. K. (2011). Hypnosis for hot flashes among postmenopausal women study: A study protocol of an ongoing randomized clinical trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 11(1). doi:10.1186/1472-6882- 11-92

Hypnotic Birth: This paper reviews the benefits and effectiveness of hypnosis in obstetrics and labor and delivery, demonstrating significant reductions in the use of analgesics and anesthesia and in shorter Stages 1 and 2 labors. It presents empirical and theoretical rationales for use of hypnosis in preterm labor (PTL) and labor and delivery at term. The benefits of hypnosis in relation to labor length, pain levels, and the enjoyment of labor, as well as its effectiveness in preterm labor are noted in randomized controlled trials and in a meta-analysis. Risk factors are reported for preterm delivery; hypnosis significantly prolongs pregnancy. Six cases are presented of hypnosis stopping PTL a number of times and when indicated at term. A case report of successful use of hypnosis in quadruplets is presented with some scripts. Suggestions are made for further research.

Brown, D. C., & Hammond, D. C. (2007). Evidence-Based Clinical Hypnosis for Obstetrics, Labor and Delivery, and Preterm Labor. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 55(3), 355-371. doi:10.1080/00207140701338654

Pain in childbirth: Hetero-hypnosis and self-hypnosis were consistently shown to be more effective than standard medical care, supportive counseling, and childbirth education classes in reducing pain.

Landolt, A. S., & Milling, L. S. (2011). The efficacy of hypnosis as an intervention for labor and delivery pain: A comprehensive methodological review. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1022-1031. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.06.002

Decreased drug use in child delivery: In the main comparison, women in the hypnosis group were less likely to use pharmacological pain relief or analgesia than those in the control groups

Wittels, B. (n.d.). Faculty of 1000 evaluation for Hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth. F1000 - Post-publication Peer Review of the Biomedical Literature. doi:10.3410/f.717964644.793468978

PTSD Obstetrics: These cases illustrate the potential value of hypnosis and alternative psychological approaches in managing women with severe antenatal anxiety.

Slater, P. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder managed successfully with hypnosis and the rewind technique: Two cases in obstetric patients. International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 24(3), 272-275. doi:10.1016/j.ijoa.2015.03.003

Pregnancy nausea: Persistent nausea of pregnancy is often caused by some unresolved emotional or psychological issue that can be rapidly resolved through hypnosis. Four cases of women who were nauseated throughout their pregnancy were treated with a brief form of hypnosis that used a psychodynamic investigation of the cause of the problem. David Cheek's ideomotor questioning was used to discover the reason for the disturbance; once uncovered, the solution was obvious and quick.

Treating Persistent Nausea of Pregnancy With Hypnosis: Four Cases. Antonio Madrid, Richard Giovannoli, and Maureen Wolfe. American Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis Vol. 54 , Iss. 2,2011